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[015] Android平台的专业术语  

2014-01-27 13:16:22|  分类: Android |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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.apk file
Android application package file. Each Android application is compiled and packaged in a single file that includes all of the application's code (.dex files), resources, assets, and manifest file. The application package file can have any name but must use the .apk extension. For example: myExampleAppname.apk. For convenience, an application package file is often referred to as an ".apk".
大意:扩展名为apk的文件是Android应用程序包,每一个Android应用程序包含的所有代码、资源和清单文件都被编译并打包成一个文件,这个文件的名字可任意取,但扩展名必须是.apk。例如,可以取名为myExampleAppname.apk。为了方便起见,一个Android应用程序包文件经常被称之为一个apk。

.dex file
Compiled Android application code file.
Android programs are compiled into .dex (Dalvik Executable) files, which are in turn zipped into a single .apk file on the device. .dex files can be created by automatically translating compiled applications written in the Java programming language.
大意:Android应用程序代码最终将会被编译成一个扩展名为dex((Dalvik Executable))的文件,我们所编写的java文件会自动地被编译成dex文件。

Action
A description of something that an Intent sender wants done. An action is a string value assigned to an Intent. Action strings can be defined by Android or by a third-party developer. For example, android.intent.action.VIEW for a Web URL, or com.example.rumbler.SHAKE_PHONE for a custom application to vibrate the phone.
大意:Action是对Intent发送者所发送的intent(意图)的一种描述。Action是被分配给intent的一个字符串。Action可以由Android系统定义,也可以由第三方开发人员定义。例如,对于一个网页URL使用android.intent.action.VIEW,或者在一个定制应用中使用com.example.rumbler.SHAKE_PHONE使手机震动。

Activity
A single screen in an application, with supporting Java code, derived from the Activity class. Most commonly, an activity is visibly represented by a full screen window that can receive and handle UI events and perform complex tasks, because of the Window it uses to render its window. Though an Activity is typically full screen, it can also be floating or transparent.
大意:Activity在应用程序里表现为一个“屏幕”,或应用程序的其中一个界面。通常,Activity是可见的、全屏的窗口,它可以处理UI事件、执行复杂的任务。虽然Activity通常是全屏的,但也可以设置使其浮动或透明。

adb
Android Debug Bridge, a command-line debugging application included with the SDK. It provides tools to browse the device, copy tools on the device, and forward ports for debugging. If you are developing in Eclipse using the ADT Plugin, adb is integrated into your development environment.
大意:adb是Android Debug Bridge的简写,即Android调试桥,它是Android SDK中自带的一个命令行调试应用程序。它所提供设备浏览工具、设备上的拷贝工具和为调试转寄端口的功能。如果你是在Eclipse下使用ADT插件进行开发,adb已经集成到你的开发环境中了。

Application
From a component perspective, an Android application consists of one or more activities, services, listeners, and intent receivers. From a source file perspective, an Android application consists of code, resources, assets, and a single manifest. During compilation, these files are packaged in a single file called an application package file (.apk).
大意:从组件的角度来看,Android应用程序是由一个或多个Activity、Service、Listener和Intent receiver组成;从资源文件的角度来看,Android应用程序是由Java代码、xml资源文件、多媒体资源(音频、视频、其它文件等)和一个文件清单组成。在编译过程中,这些文件被打包成一个单一的叫做应用软件包的文件中(.apk)。

Content Provider
A data-abstraction layer that you can use to safely expose your application's data to other applications. A content provider is built on the ContentProvider class, which handles content query strings of a specific format to return data in a specific format. 
大意:Content Provider是一个数据抽象层,通过它你可以安全地将你应用程序中的数据暴露给其它的应用程序。Content Provider构建在ContentProvider类之上,它负责处理指定格式的查询串,并以指定的格式返回数据。

Dalvik
The Android platform's virtual machine. The Dalvik VM is an interpreter-only virtual machine that executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format, a format that is optimized for efficient storage and memory-mappable execution. The virtual machine is register-based, and it can run classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into its native format using the included "dx" tool. The VM runs on top of Posix-compliant operating systems, which it relies on for underlying functionality (such as threading and low level memory management). The Dalvik core class library is intended to provide a familiar development base for those used to programming with Java Standard Edition, but it is geared specifically to the needs of a small mobile device.
大意:Dalvik是Android平台的虚拟机。Dalvik是一个只能解释执行dex文件的虚拟机,dex文件针对存储性能和内存管理进行了优化。Dalvik是基于寄存器的虚拟机,并且能够运行经过Dalvik自带的“dx”工具转换过的Java类。虚拟机运行在兼容Posix的操作系统上,依赖于底层的功能(如线程和低级内存管理)。Dalvik的核心类库有意做得与Java标准版非常类似,但它明显更适合小型移动设备。

DDMS
Dalvik Debug Monitor Service, a GUI debugging application included with the SDK. It provides screen capture, log dump, and process examination capabilities. If you are developing in Eclipse using the ADT Plugin, DDMS is integrated into your development environment. 
大意:DDMS即Dalvik Debug Monitor Service,它是SDK自带的一个图形化的调试工具,它提供了屏幕捕捉、日志存储和进程检测的能力。如果你在Eclipse中使用ADT插件进行开发,那么DDMS已经被集成在你的开发环境中了。

Dialog
A floating window that that acts as a lightweight form. A dialog can have button controls only and is intended to perform a simple action (such as button choice) and perhaps return a value. A dialog is not intended to persist in the history stack, contain complex layout, or perform complex actions. Android provides a default simple dialog for you with optional buttons, though you can define your own dialog layout. The base class for dialogs is Dialog.
大意:Dialog通常以一种轻量级的浮动窗口形式呈现,一个Dialog可以只包含一个用于执行简单动作的按钮(如按钮选择)。Dialog并不会被持久存储在历史栈中。所有对话框类的基类是Dialog。

Drawable
A compiled visual resource that can be used as a background, title, or other part of the screen. A drawable is typically loaded into another UI element, for example as a background image. A drawable is not able to receive events, but does assign various other properties such as "state" and scheduling, to enable subclasses such as animation objects or image libraries. Many drawable objects are loaded from drawable resource files — xml or bitmap files that describe the image. Drawable resources are compiled into subclasses of android.graphics.drawable. 
大意:Drawable是经过编译的可视化资源,可以用于背景、标题或屏幕的其他部分。典型的情况,drawable被装载到另外一个UI元素中,例如将drawable作为背景图片。drawable不能够接收事件,但可以分配不同的其它属性,如“状态”。许多drawable对象是从描述图片的xml资源文件或位图文件中加载得到的。Drawable资源被编译到android.graphics.drawable的一个子类中。

Intent
An message object that you can use to launch or communicate with other applications/activities asynchronously. An Intent object is an instance of Intent. It includes several criteria fields that you can supply, to determine what application/activity receives the Intent and what the receiver does when handling the Intent. Available criteria include include the desired action, a category, a data string, the MIME type of the data, a handling class, and others. An application sends an Intent to the Android system, rather than sending it directly to another application/activity. The application can send the Intent to a single target application or it can send it as a broadcast, which can in turn be handled by multiple applications sequentially. The Android system is responsible for resolving the best-available receiver for each Intent, based on the criteria supplied in the Intent and the Intent Filters defined by other applications. 
大意:Intent是一个消息对象,你可能通过intent启动其它应用程序或其它Activity,或者通过intent与其它应用程序或Activity进行异步交流。Intent对象是Intent的一个实例,它包含了许多方面:您能提供什么、确定应用程序或Activity收到的意图以及处理intent时接受者做什么处理。Intent包括:预期执行的动作(action)、动作类别(category)、数据(data)、数据类型(MIME Type)、处理类等。一个应用程序发送一个意图给Android系统,而不是直接给发送给其它应用程序或Activity。应用程序能够将意图发送给目标应用程序或者将意图作为一条广播发送,该广播能够被许多应用程序轮流处理。根据其它应用程序定义的意图过滤器,Android系统负责解决:对于每一个意图,哪一个意图接收器最适合。

Intent Filter
A filter object that an application declares in its manifest file, to tell the system what types of Intents each of its components is willing to accept and with what criteria. Through an intent filter, an application can express interest in specific data types, Intent actions, URI formats, and so on. When resolving an Intent, the system evaluates all of the available intent filters in all applications and passes the Intent to the application/activity that best matches the Intent and criteria.
大意:应用程序的Intent Filter(意图过滤器)声明在Manifest文件中,它用于告诉系统应用程序的组件愿意接收哪种类型的意图。通过Intent filter,应用程序能够表达出对哪些指定的数据类型、意图的行为、URI格式等感兴趣。当要解决某个意图,系统会对所有应用程序的全部意图过滤器进行评估,然后将意图传递给最匹配的应用程序的Activity。

Broadcast Receiver
An application class that listens for Intents that are broadcast, rather than being sent to a single target application/activity. The system delivers a broadcast Intent to all interested broadcast receivers, which handle the Intent sequentially.
大意:Broadcast Receiver是一个用于接收应用程序广播(不是发送给应用程序的Activity)的类。系统将广播发送给所有对此广播感兴趣的广播接收器,这些广播接口器会按顺序处理该意图。

Layout Resource
An XML file that describes the layout of an Activity screen.
大意:布局资源是一个用于描述屏幕布局的xml文件。

Manifest File
An XML file that each application must define, to describe the application's package name, version, components (activities, intent filters, services), imported libraries, and describes the various activities, and so on.
大意:清单文件是每一个应用程序都必须定义的xml文件,它用于描述应用程序的包名、版本、组件(Activity、intent filters、Services等)、引用的类库等。

Nine-patch / 9-patch / Ninepatch image
A resizeable bitmap resource that can be used for backgrounds or other images on the device. 
大意:*.9.png是一种尺寸可变的位置资源,它可以用于背景图片或在设备上显示的图片。

OpenGL ES
Android provides OpenGL ES libraries that you can use for fast, complex 3D images. It is harder to use than a Canvas object, but better for 3D objects. The android.opengl and javax.microedition.khronos.opengles packages expose OpenGL ES functionality.
大意:你可以使用Android提供了OpenGL ES类库处理快速、复杂的3D图像。它比Canvas对象的使用要难一些,但更适合3D应用。android.opengl和javax.microedition.khronos.opengles两个包暴露了OpenGL ES的功能。

Resources
Nonprogrammatic application components that are external to the compiled application code, but which can be loaded from application code using a well-known reference format. Android supports a variety of resource types, but a typical application's resources would consist of UI strings, UI layout components, graphics or other media files, and so on. An application uses resources to efficiently support localization and varied device profiles and states. For example, an application would include a separate set of resources for each supported local or device type, and it could include layout resources that are specific to the current screen orientation (landscape or portrait). For more information about resources, see Resources and Assets. The resources of an application are always stored in the res/* subfolders of the project.
大意:资源可以理解为应用程序的“非编程”组件,即并不是通过编写代码产生的。但应用程序代码可以使用特定的引用格式来使用资源。Android系统支持大量的资源类型,最为典型的应用程序资源主要由UI字符串、UI布局组件、图像及其它媒体文件等组成。Android应用程序使用资源来有效地支撑本地化和各种各样的设备,对于不同的手机屏幕大小、屏幕方向(横竖屏)都可以设置相应的资源。

Service
An object of class Service that runs in the background (without any UI presence) to perform various persistent actions, such as playing music or monitoring network activity.
大意:Service运行在后台(无需任何UI界面)以开展许多持久的活动,例如:播放音乐或者监测网络的活动。

 

 

Theme
A set of properties (text size, background color, and so on) bundled together to define various default display settings. Android provides a few standard themes, listed in R.style (starting with "Theme_").
大意:Theme是一系列定义多种默认显示设置的参数(文字大小、背景颜色等)。Android系统在R.style中提供了一些标准的主题(以"Theme_"开头)。

 

URIs in Android
Android uses URI strings as the basis for requesting data in a content provider (such as to retrieve a list of contacts) and for requesting actions in an Intent (such as opening a Web page in a browser). The URI scheme and format is specialized according to the type of use, and an application can handle specific URI schemes and strings in any way it wants. Some URI schemes are reserved by system components. For example, requests for data from a content provider must use the content://. In an Intent, a URI using an http:// scheme will be handled by the browser.
大意:Android使用URI字符串作为基本的数据请求(例如检索联系人列表)和动作请求(例如在浏览器中打开一个页面)的方式。URI字符串可以具有不同的格式,但所有请求数据的URI都必须以“content://”开头。有效的动作URI字符串会被设备上的适当的程序处理,例如,以“http://”开头的URI字符串会被浏览器处理。

View
An object that draws to a rectangular area on the screen and handles click, keystroke, and other interaction events. A View is a base class for most layout components of an Activity or Dialog screen (text boxes, windows, and so on). It receives calls from its parent object (see viewgroup, below)to draw itself, and informs its parent object about where and how big it would like to be (which may or may not be respected by the parent).
大意:View是绘制在手机屏幕上的一块矩形区域,它能够处理点击事件、键盘事件和其它交互事件。View是大多数组件的基类,如文本框、对话框等。

Viewgroup
A container object that groups a set of child Views. The viewgroup is responsible for deciding where child views are positioned and how large they can be, as well as for calling each to draw itself when appropriate. Some viewgroups are invisible and are for layout only, while others have an intrinsic UI (for instance, a scrolling list box). Viewgroups are all in the widget package, but extend ViewGroup.
大意:ViewGroup是包含一系列view的容器对象。ViewGroup负责决定它里面包含的view显示在什么位置、占用的大小,以及在适当的时候调用每个view的方法来绘制它们自己。有些ViewGroup是不可见的,它们仅仅用于布局,但有些ViewGroup又有固定的UI,例如滚动的列表框组件。所有的ViewGroup都继承了ViewGroup类,并且位于android.widget包下。

Widget
One of a set of fully implemented View subclasses that render form elements and other UI components, such as a text box or popup menu. Because a widget is fully implemented, it handles measuring and drawing itself and responding to screen events. Widgets are all in the android.widget package.
大意:Widget即组件,它是一系列View子类(UI组件、布局等)的集合,例如文本框或弹出菜单。Widget要负责测量和绘制它本身,并且还要对屏幕事件做出反应。所有的Widget都位于android.widget包下。

Window
In an Android application, an object derived from the abstract class Window that specifies the elements of a generic window, such as the look and feel (title bar text, location and content of menus, and so on). Dialog and Activity use an implementation of this class to render a window. You do not need to implement this class or use windows in your application.
大意:在Android应用程序中,我们并不会实现或直接使用Window这个类,它是一个抽象类。我们通常都是使用实现了Window类的Dialog和Activity类生成一个窗口(Window)。

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